Cortical Neural Prostheses turns memory on an off

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A cortical neural prosthesis for restoring and enhancing memory Theodore W Berger1, Robert E Hampson2, Dong Song1, Anushka Goonawardena2, Vasilis Z Marmarelis1 and Sam A Deadwyler2 1 Depatment of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA 2 Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA ABSTRACT A primary objective … Continue reading

A Wireless Brain-Machine Interface for Real-Time Speech Synthesis

Figure 1. Schematic of the brain-machine interface for real-time synthetic speech production. Black circles and curved arrows represent neurons and axonal projections, respectively, in the neural circuitry for speech motor output. The volunteer’s stroke-induced lesion in the efferent motor pathways (red X) disconnects motor plans represented in the cerebral cortex from the speech motoneurons, thus disabling speech output while sparing somatic, auditory, and visual sensation as well as speech motor planning centers in cerebral cortex. Signals collected from an electrode implanted in the subject’s speech motor cortex are amplified and sent wirelessly across the scalp as FM radio signals. The signals are then routed to an electrophysiology recording system for further amplification, analog-to-digital conversion, and spike sorting. The sorted spikes are sent to a Neural Decoder which translates them into commands for a Speech Synthesizer. Audio signals from the synthesizer are fed back to the subject in real time. [Abbreviation: PrCG = precentral gyrus.] doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008218.g001

A Wireless Brain-Machine Interface for Real-Time Speech Synthesis Frank H. Guenther1,2*, Jonathan S. Brumberg1,3, E. Joseph Wright3, Alfonso Nieto-Castanon4, Jason A. Tourville1, Mikhail Panko1, Robert Law1, Steven A. Siebert3, Jess L. Bartels3, Dinal S. Andreasen3,5, Princewill Ehirim6, Hui Mao7, Philip R. Kennedy3 1 Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems and Sargent College of Health and … Continue reading

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