Molecular Basis of Plasticity: SynCAM 1 Adhesion Dynamically Regulates Synapse Number and Impacts Plasticity and Learning

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Neurons that fire together wire together. Adhesion molecule SynCAM1: promotes new synapses in the developing brain, holds synaptic junctions together, and impacts the maintenance and function of these structure. Elissa M. Robbins, Alexander J. Krupp, Karen Perez de Arce, Ananda K. Ghosh, Adam I. Fogel, Antony Boucard, Thomas C. Südhof, Valentin Stein, Thomas Biederer Summary … Continue reading

A Wireless Brain-Machine Interface for Real-Time Speech Synthesis

Figure 1. Schematic of the brain-machine interface for real-time synthetic speech production. Black circles and curved arrows represent neurons and axonal projections, respectively, in the neural circuitry for speech motor output. The volunteer’s stroke-induced lesion in the efferent motor pathways (red X) disconnects motor plans represented in the cerebral cortex from the speech motoneurons, thus disabling speech output while sparing somatic, auditory, and visual sensation as well as speech motor planning centers in cerebral cortex. Signals collected from an electrode implanted in the subject’s speech motor cortex are amplified and sent wirelessly across the scalp as FM radio signals. The signals are then routed to an electrophysiology recording system for further amplification, analog-to-digital conversion, and spike sorting. The sorted spikes are sent to a Neural Decoder which translates them into commands for a Speech Synthesizer. Audio signals from the synthesizer are fed back to the subject in real time. [Abbreviation: PrCG = precentral gyrus.] doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008218.g001

A Wireless Brain-Machine Interface for Real-Time Speech Synthesis Frank H. Guenther1,2*, Jonathan S. Brumberg1,3, E. Joseph Wright3, Alfonso Nieto-Castanon4, Jason A. Tourville1, Mikhail Panko1, Robert Law1, Steven A. Siebert3, Jess L. Bartels3, Dinal S. Andreasen3,5, Princewill Ehirim6, Hui Mao7, Philip R. Kennedy3 1 Department of Cognitive and Neural Systems and Sargent College of Health and … Continue reading

Axon and target communicate to organize synaptic differentiation.

synapse organizers

Key Presynaptic organizers: NT-7a, neuroligin, synaptic cell adhesion molecule (SynCAM) and fibroblast growth factor-22 (FGF-22) have all been identified as target-derived presynaptic organizers Key Postsynaptic organizers: axon-derived neuronal activity regulated pentraxin (Narp), ephrinB and neurexin reciprocally co-ordinate postsynaptic differentiation. Seeking long-term relationship: axon and target communicate to organize synaptic differentiation. J Neurochem. 2006 Jun;97(5):1215-31. Epub … Continue reading

Chess and the Brain (3 Studies)

chess

Study of change in brain activity due to blood flow while playing Shogi (Japanese chess). Electromyogr Clin Neurophysiol. 2010 Apr-Jun;50(3-4):137-48. Ogata K, Honda N. Dept. of System Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Choufugaoka 1-5-1, Chofu City, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan. kogata@fs.se.uec.ac.jp Abstract BACKGROUND: The study of brain activity has been studied with the use of various … Continue reading

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